Complexity Theory - the Holy Grail of 21st Century

This world is becoming more and more complex as time goes by. Around 4.5 billion years ago, the planet earth must be a boring place like Mars since even life did not exist. Life has to wait for about 1 billion years to embark on the planet earth - created by chance or sent by alien, no one knows for sure. Then the evolution of life starts:  the first eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes, between 2500 and 1000 million years ago; animals appeared around 580 million years ago; Cambrian Period ( from 542 ± 0.3 million years ago to 483.3 ± 1.7 million years ago) marked a profound change in life on Earth - diversification of lifeforms was relatively rapid, and is termed the Cambrian explosion; the first true mammals appeared in the Late Triassic (ca. 200 million years ago); only until approximately 6 million year sago ancestors of modern humans started to walk on the earth. A more complete timeline can be found here.

The complexity of human society increases rapidly especially after three information communication revolutions. In the 1st Information Communication Revolution, the first written communication began, with pictographs. These writings were made on stone, which were too heavy to transfer. During this era, written communication was not mobile, but nonetheless existed. In the 2nd Information Communication Revolution, writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc. Common alphabets were introduced, allowing the uniformity of language across large distances. Much later the Gutenberg printing-press was invented. Gutenberg created this printing-press after a long period of time in the 15th century. In the 3rd Information Communication Revolution, information can now be transferred via controlled waves and electronic signals.  There is prediction about the next revolution - another singularity might occur when machine intelligence surpasses human intelligence. The holy grail of 21st century is to understand the most complex system created by nature - human brain (neocortex in particular).  The following map includes the previous effort since 1940s: cybernetics (communication and control), chaos, catastrophy ... are all facets of complexity science. One cannot help wondeing: isn't this world already too complex to be understood?
File:Complexity-map-overview.png
The answer is Yes and No. Yes because "more is different" (P.W. Anderson). No because "Nature is not economical of structures but of principles" (Abdus Salam). What kind of principles are we looking for? There is one so-called self-organizing which has been widely used and abused in the literature. My currrent research focus is to understand the self-organizing principles of biological memory.